For groundwater, this means that C is a widely used tool to establish chronologies for groundwater flow systems and climate records for the Holocene and Pleistocene.
It is considered to be the most important tool for age dating of ‘old’ groundwater.
Libby and coworkers, and it has provided a way to determine the ages of different materials in archeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science.
There is also a stable isotope of carbon, C is calibrated against an NBS (National Bureau of Standards) oxalic acid standard.
Radiocarbon dating (usually referred to simply as carbon-14 dating) is a radiometric dating method.
It uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 (14C) to estimate the age of carbon-bearing materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years old.
The internationally accepted radiocarbon dating reference is 95% of the activity, in 1950 AD, of the NBS oxalic acid normalized to C activity: » 50 pmc Chemical and isotopc evolution in recharge zone: (Fig) (Fig) Open and closed system conditions ‘real world’ systems are somewhere in between open and closed and the correction models mentioned above and described in Clark and Fritz (chapter 8) have to be applied.
Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50,000 years old.